2. Designing a course or class around students using their own technologies can raise issues of equity and access. The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework can be used to proactively design lessons that address learner variability. Yes If you’re asking this question, then well done, you! Students were given instructions from the teacher regarding the lesson plan and objectives at the commencement of the class, and further guidance throughout the lesson as needed. In turn, the cognitive, social and behavioural domains of student engagement are collectively associated with improved learning outcomes such as retention of knowledge, test scores and grades [17]. Standard 2: SCORM Compliance. Early Start, School of Education, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia. (a) Awards (including those made under delegated authority) are made and classified exclusively on the basis of criterion-referenced assessment of learning outcomes (knowledge, skill and competence). Students in flexible learning spaces spent significantly less time in a whole-class setting, and more time working in groups, relative to traditional classrooms. This may translate into beneficial learning outcomes in the long-term. Site accessed on 13 April, 2005.Miller, P (1999) Z39.50 for All, Ariadne, Issue 21, Sept, 1999. 3. The vision for future-focused learning environments is that learning will be enhanced through increasingly employing student-centred pedagogies. Conceptualization, Observations were conducted in subject areas including English, mathematics, geography, and history. In flexible learning spaces students spent a greater proportion of class time working in group settings and collaborating, and were typically given autonomy to interact with one another and discuss academic tasks. 4. Resources, This was demonstrated through verbal and physical behaviours appropriate to the task set by the teacher, such as raising hands, writing or discussing the activity. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. In flexible learning spaces, students spent more time collaborating and interacting positively with their peers, as well as more time presenting work back to the class. Yes As a board of trustees, when you are upgrading your school’s learning spaces, you must comply with Designing Quality Learning Spaces (DQLS) guidelines as part of creating an Innovative Learning Environment. SEARCH-ID Psychic analysis of AOL users and their search logs Here is search logs of 650,000 AOL users. Students chose their seat upon entering the classroom and generally remained there for the duration of the lesson. Flexible Learning Health and Social Care . • Pace “encompasses accelerated and decelerated programmes, part-time learning, recognition of prior learning and associated credit frameworks.” The application of the Z39.50 standard allows users of the QUT library to access the many online databases such as Proquest and Emerald, which the QUT library subscribes to.While not riveting reading, if you are interested in understanding more about how Z39.50 provides a standard for interoperability read more in the article by Paul Miller Z39.50 for All available athttp://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue21/z3950/intro.htmlFurther Readings. The shift in practice is mirrored by an emerging research focus on the spatiality of education [11]. To the overview. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation 2.2 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how babies and children learn and develop. In relation to students’ interaction with peers, students in flexible learning spaces spent significantly more time interacting positively (d = 0.88, p = 0.001) and significantly less time not interacting (d = -0.85, p = 0.001) traditional classrooms, resulting in large effect sizes. However flexible learning in itself is complex, and not as simple as this definition implies. Yes A class list featuring consenting students in alphabetical order of surname was used to identify students to be observed. A flexible classroom is fundamental to an instruc-tor’s ability to adapt to various needs. Rather a complex interplay exists between the built learning environment, the pedagogical approach, the subject being studied, and the student. University of British Columbia . Standardizing design features for learning spaces. A learning environment is not just about property. Campbell (2000)Very simply interoperability maximizes the exchange and re-use of information, but it goes beyond using compatible hardware and software. 2.4 Lead and model effective strategies to develop and extend children’s learning and thinking, including sustained shared thinking. There will be a flexible approach for the submission of teacher assessment outcomes at the end of key stages 1 and 2. Interoperability becomes a quality of increasing importance for information technology products as the concept that “the network is the computer” becomes a reality.The following cartoon illustrates the point. Flexible Classrooms: Making Space for Personalized Learning - … Instead it was found that students spent a greater proportion of class time actively engaged with the lesson content and less time verbally off-task when in the flexible spaces. Designed by teachers for teachers, the APST serves as a public statement of teacher quality and a nationally consistent reference and description of the teaching role. Element 3.2.1: Inclusive environment: Outdoor and indoor spaces are organised and adapted to support every child's participation and to engage every child in quality experiences in both built and natural environments. 4, series of 2020, “Guidelines on the Implementation of Flexible Learning” 2:00 PM. Formal analysis, These details are intended to be generic and have been developed with the following site characteristics: Importance Level 2 . supports collaborative learning and teaching for students and teachers. Flexible Learning Health and Social Care . Available online at http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/commcentre/isobulletin/articles/2002/pdf/. Further, an association has been found between middle school instructional environments that increasingly include the whole-class setting and classroom disengagement among youth [41]. Professional standards and performance for teachers. There was no significant difference in time spent engaged in interactions of a negative nature between the two conditions. Difference in passive engagement and passive and motor off-task behaviour were non-significant between the two conditions. Site accessed on 13 April, 2005. posted by Stuart @ 9:22 PM   0 comments, http://standards.edna.edu.au/newsletter/0407/glossary.html, http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue21/z3950/intro.html, http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eqm0324.pdf, http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/commcentre/isobulletin/articles/2002/, http://flexiblelearning.net.au/guides/keyterms.pdf, www.aridane.ac.uk/issue25/cartoon/intro.html, www.ariadne.ac.uk/ussie24/interoperability, http://www.flexiblelearning.net.au/standards, http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/commcentre/isobulletin/articles/2002/pdf/, www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue21/z3950.intro.html, www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eq0324.pdf. a Flexible Learning Space (FLS). We thank Byron Kemp for his assistance with the data analysis. In traditional classrooms the approach was predominantly teacher-led and in the flexible learning space it was student-centred. Disengagement has been found to be particularly acute during early adolescence and persists into the secondary school years [36]. Flexible learning approaches are often designed using a full range of teaching and learning theories, philosophies and methods to provide students with opportunities to access information and expertise, contribute ideas and opinions, and correspond with other learners and mentors. Of the sample 45% were female, students had a mean age of 13.2 years (SD = 1.0), and were from a range of socio-economic backgrounds, representing over 13 cultural and ethnic groups (Table 2). However, limited inter-disciplinary research exists that draws on learnings from the built environment literature and current understanding of school improvement and educational change processes, to ensure that teachers are effectively prepared and supported to transition to flexible learning spaces [19]. The lesson then proceeded as planned. Available at website http://flexiblelearning.net.au/guides/keyterms.pdf Site accessed on 15 April, 2005.Backroad Connections Pty Ltd (2003), Definition of key terms used in e-learning (Version 1.00), Australian Flexible Learning Framework Quick Guides series.Campbell, M (2000) Aridane, Issue 25, Sept, 2000. In Flexible Learning, a seamless combination of Home-Based Learning and Cautious Return to On-Campus Learning will be used to minimize learning interruption, ensure learning continuity, and ensure that minimum standards of DepEd and/or CHED are met. Support with learning space. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223607.t001. The protocol was approved by the University of Wollongong’s Human Ethics Research Committee (HE16/021) and the New South Wales (NSW) State Education Research Applications Process (SERAP). A limitation is that students were only observed on one occasion per school in each of the two conditions, due to the limited time available for researchers to be in the schools. The framework can be utilized in two ways. The Flexible Learning Fund has now been launched as part of this pilot programme. Flexible learning spaces (Fig 2) were a combination of standard- and double-sized classrooms (M = 83m2) and incorporated a range of furniture such as grouped tables, standing workstations, ottomans, couches, and write-able tables and walls. Available online at www.aridane.ac.uk/issue25/cartoon/intro.html Site accessed on 13 April, 2005.Miller, P (2000) Interoperability : What is it and Why should I want it? Conceptualization, While it is recognised that engagement occurs on a cognitive, emotional and behavioural level [37,38], behavioural engagement–which can be classified according to how students interact with the teacher, their peers and the lesson content–is assessed most frequently as it is directly observable [39]. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Prior to the commencement of data collection in each respective learning environment, a discussion was held with the teacher about the pedagogical approach for the lesson, the structure, content and what activities would be occurring. Since teachers commonly report disruptive behaviour as talking out of turn or disturbing/hindering other students [40], these findings may be reassuring to educators who are concerned about possible challenges around managing disruptive classroom behaviour in these more autonomy-permissive, interactive environments. 3. Methodology, The interaction of four components - technology, pedagogy, implementation strategies, organisational framework - can lead to learner-centred experiences when they are well integrated (Collis & Moonen, 2001). It gives the student and lecturer control and portability over their records and learning accomplishments, not only during their time at University, but in their working life as well. Though often described interchangeably, competencies and standards are in some ways world’s apart. Online learning; Media. To account for clustering, schools were used as a random effect in the model. MANILA, Philippines — Higher Education institutions (HEIs) implementing “flexible learning” may start the next academic year by August, the Commission on Higher Education (CHEd) said Thursday. Do you see benefits or drawbacks?Can you see an adaptation of such a system in your workplace, with primary school or secondary school students as a method of tracking performance and development of skills?References, Australian National Training Authority. here. Home; Providers; Flexible care services Flexible care services. While this study did not observe a difference in the proportion of class time spent in teacher-student interaction between the two conditions, the observed interactions that did occur were overwhelmingly positive; i.e., they were related to academic content or rapport building rather than disciplinary in nature. Designing a course or class around students using their own technologies can raise issues of equity and access. The lesson content and teacher were consistent across both conditions. Conceptualization, Also there are five dimensions which can impact:time; content of the course; entry requirements; instructional approaches and resources; delivery and logistic… The findings suggest that a teacher with the environmental competency to maximise the affordances of flexible learning spaces is able to achieve the results found in this study. The aim of this study was therefore to objectively measure and compare adolescent classroom behaviour between traditional classrooms and flexible learning spaces and assess the effect of the space and teaching approach on a range of classroom behaviours. flexible learning resources, including communication resources. The flexible budget in Figure 10.2 “Flexible Budget for Variable Production Costs at Jerry’s Ice Cream” uses the standard cost information to show the variable production costs expected in total given a certain level of activity (210,000 units in this example). Data Availability: There are ethical restrictions on sharing the de-identified data set as the Participant Information Sheets and Consent Forms did not state that the data will be publicly available through a storage depository. Schools typically selected their top academic class of the year level to participate in the research. This rationale aligns with research in environmental psychology which has long purported that human behaviour and the built environment are closely interrelated [47]. In addition, the structure of space within buildings is thought to influence the formation of relationships between people [24], yet little is known about the nature of interactions that occur with these spaces. With respect to the learning setting, students in flexible learning spaces spent less class time working as a whole class (d = -0.65, p = 0.001), more time working in groups of more than six students (d = 0.46, p = 0.004) and in groups of up to six students (d = 0.61, p = 0.001) compared with students in traditional classrooms, resulting in moderate effect sizes. Flexible learning environments address how physical space is used, how students are grouped during learning and how time is used throughout teaching. The teaching approaches in both conditions were documented. In consultation with the research team, child level setting, child academic behaviour, and child social behaviour were deemed behavioural categories relevant to the aims of this study. learning organizations have often been reverential and utopian Teachers were required to teach in a manner typical of how they would normally conduct their lesson in the respective learning spaces. Castle Tower SEN (Special Educational Needs) School, Ballymena, Northern Ireland . Prior to the study, teachers had participated in various professional learning experiences ranging from tours of other schools that had transitioned to flexible learning spaces, conferences, short courses on designing and teaching in flexible learning spaces and informal teacher networks, both within and among schools, that gave rise to collective reflexivity and reciprocal learning [5]. Further, students spent less time being taught explicitly and working individually, than in traditional classrooms. These teachers were considered change agents within their respective schools [5]. Previous math curricula across the country have been described as a mile wide and an inch deep. The differences in time spent using technology both actively and passively, between conditions, was not significant. The initial investment has been followed by further financial commitments, and broad support at the departmental level for schools to transition to more flexible learning spaces. School educators are now faced with the challenge of navigating evolving teaching landscapes in these innovative environments, are required to adopt a flexible and adaptive pedagogical approach and provide increasingly personalised support to students. Assessment is the process of collecting evidence and making judgments as to whether the individual has achieved the competency desired at a level specified in the competency standards, curriculum or learning outcomes for a particular course for which accreditation and equivalency of learning is sought. Students from nine secondary schools (n = 60, M age = 13.2±1.0y) were observed via momentary time sampling for a 30 minute period, in both a traditionally furnished and arranged classroom and a flexible learning space containing a variety of furniture options to accommodate different pedagogical approaches and learning styles. However, the modes of learning students engage in, the physical settings they choose, how they interact with their teachers and peers, and the effect of these innovative environments on behavioural engagement remain largely unexplored [28]. Data were analyzed using mixed-effect multi-linear regression to calculate the differences between traditional classrooms and flexible learning spaces for all codes for each behavioural category. Further the spaces and how they are used, facilitate ample opportunities to enhance student creativity, innovation, communication and problem solving skills, which are deemed increasingly crucial for the workplaces of the future that students are being prepared for by schools. Effective design of leaning spaces has been found to facilitate constructivist pedagogy and student engagement [25,26] and research suggests that how classroom space is arranged has implications for student performance [27]. Methodology, Disengagement is of concern not least because it places students at risk of school dropout [33] but, because low school engagement has been shown to be a correlate and predictor of problem behaviour and poor health among adolescents [34]. Informed parental consent was obtained and data collection included the students’ age, sex, cultural background and postcode of residence, which was used to determine socioeconomic status. The newly adopted Common Core State Standards stress the importance of flexible thinking and problem solving. It is broadly assumed that the teaching and learning approach used in flexible learning spaces will ultimately lead to improvements in academic outcomes. AICTEC: Newsletter of the AICTEC Standards and Interoperability Committee (ASIC) Issue 4, August 2004. The incorporation of virtual space into learning environments necessitates additional modifications to both the built environment and the pedagogical approach to capitalise on the affordances of technology [14]. Although an estimated 25% of Australian classrooms are now no longer classified as ‘traditional’ [18], there is limited empirical evidence on the effects that flexible learning spaces have on adolescent classroom behaviour and ultimately learning outcomes in the secondary school setting [19,20]. The standards and procedures for the P&S Learning Environment have been adopted by the P&S Curriculum and Education Policy Committee, and are discussed with students during orientation and transition to the Major Clinical Year. The difference in time spent sitting individually between the two conditions was not significant. The mean differences in outcome variables between the two conditions were considered statistically significant at p < 0.05. Previous research suggests that students who perceived their teacher to be autonomy-supportive exhibit higher levels of engagement [48]. Students often fluctuate multiple times between being actively or passively engaged to being passively, verbally or motor off-task throughout a lesson. To provide additional detail and to ensure the tool was able to capture elements of interests that exist within a flexible learning space, a further two categories, namely mode of learning, and use of technology were added to the instrument. Assessment supports standards based on learning outcomes. The student-centred approach allows students to capitalize on opportunities created by the variety of furniture and resources such as the group tables, standing workstations, and writeable walls. A non-formal education in the Philippines had been set as the Alternative Learning System commonly known as ALS. Further research is required to unpack the complexity of the interplay between the built environment and the pedagogical approaches and how best to support teachers’ environmental competencies to maximise the benefits that flexible learning spaces can offer adolescents. Click here to purchase the full version from the ANSI store. The instrument was based on a previously validated observational tool, the Classroom Observation System, COS-5 Pianta [29], which aims to record the frequency of a range of behaviours and experiences that may typically be observed in a school classroom. Analyses were conducted in SPSS (Version 21) and STATA (Version 13). It goes some way, but not to the full potential of the electronic portfolio described.Available online at http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eqm0324.pdfThe second article, Learning by IT is very short and looks at the need for international standards which go beyond content delivery and internet connectivity.Available online at http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/commcentre/isobulletin/articles/2002/, pdf/learningbyit02-06.pdfReflection Point, After reading the article Setting Standards for Electronic Portfolios reflect upon its possible implementation in your university. (Table 3). It is purported that flexible learning spaces inherently support educators to employ student-centred teaching approaches [15], and that these spaces can accommodate and facilitate learning modes such as collaboration, explicit instruction, independent work, feedback and reflection as well as experiential learning, which are believed to lead to improvements in students’ engagement and motivation [16]. Allow competition and cooperation as appropriate.Many standards apply to the different aspects of the online environment. You can see it in action for yourselves when you log into the QUT library database. Click here to purchase the full version from the ANSI store. Aspirational Standards for Staff Capabilities in Blended and Flexible Learning Professor Mike Keppell Charles Sturt University Australia EDULEARN11 - Barcelona Changes included modifications to both the physical environment and the pedagogical approaches used in the space. flexible learning resources, including communication resources. The teaching approach in the flexible learning spaces was student-centred and group-work focused. 2.1 Develop democratic relationships (PDF 468KB) 2.2 Build a community of learners (PDF 544KB) 2.3 Negotiate learning (PDF 481KB) 2.4 Challenge students to achieve high standards with appropriate support (PDF 576KB) Domain 2 SA TfEL framework guide (PDF 2MB) learningspaces.ubc.ca learningspaces.ok.ubc.ca https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223607, Editor: Heather Erwin, University of Kentucky, UNITED STATES, Received: July 9, 2019; Accepted: September 24, 2019; Published: October 4, 2019. 3:29. The Fund will provide grant support to projects that develop methods of delivering learning that are flexible and easy to access for adults who are in work, or returning to work, with either low or intermediate level skills. In the traditional classrooms the teaching style was primarily teacher-led, with the teacher largely remaining at the front of the classroom, often near the teacher’s desk. 2.1 Develop democratic relationships (PDF 468KB) 2.2 Build a community of learners (PDF 544KB) 2.3 Negotiate learning (PDF 481KB) 2.4 Challenge students to achieve high standards with appropriate support (PDF 576KB) Domain 2 SA TfEL framework guide (PDF 2MB) This procedure has been found to be effective when seeking to describe students’ classroom behaviour [30]. To demonstrate the magnitude of the difference between the means of the two conditions, standardized effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated from the means and standard deviations of the two conditions; using the traditional classroom as the denominator. 4. Flexible Learning Strategies for Out-of-School Children - Duration: 3:29. Students were given the autonomy to choose where in the space to work, what furniture and resource to use and typically formed groups or worked independently out of their own volition. Available online at www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue21/z3950.intro.html. Overall students in flexible learning spaces spent a greater proportion of class time actively engaged with the lesson. They emphatically reject any situation in science education where some people—for example, members of certain populations—are discouraged from pursuing science and excluded from opportunities to learn science. FLEXIBLE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS S. chool and classroom designs should facilitate modern learning methods that prepare students for college, careers, and citizenship in the twenty-first century. Flexible learning gives students choices about when, where, and how they learn. The model analyzed the data for within-child differences. In addition students were afforded considerable freedom to choose how to go about their learning. Further students in flexible learning spaces spent less time being engaged in teacher-led instruction (d = -0.75), working independently (d = -0.79) and engaged in presentation-based work (d = 0.65) resulting in moderate to large effect sizes. We acknowledge the Futures Learning Unit of the NSW Department of Education and Training, especially Kathleen Donohoe and Robert Fraser for their support with identifying eligible schools. As such, the differences observed in student behaviour can likely be attributed to the changes in the built environment and teaching approach, rather than to differences between cohorts of students. The two data collection instances in each school took place within 1–2 weeks of one another, between 2016 and 2017. Create safe conditions for rigorous learning - Domain 2. 3. September 25, 2020: Public hearing / consultation on the Proposed New Normal Policies and Guidelines on the Deployment of Pre-service Teacher for Field Study and Teaching Internship for A.Y. To optimize twenty-first-century teaching methods such as project-based learning and personalized . On the flip side, fully engaged students report better mental and physical health in addition to improved academic grades [35]. NRTH CAROLNA PROFESSNAL TEACN STANDARDS STANDARD 2 Teachers Establish a Respectful Environment for a Diverse Population of Students Teachers provide an environment in which each child has a positive, nurturing relationship with caring adults. Difference in time spent engaged in reflective learning and research-based work were non-significant between the two conditions. You are here. Flexible Learning Strategies in First through Fourth-Year Courses Alice Cassidy, Guopeng Fu, Will Valley, Cyprien Lomas, Eduardo Jovel, and Andrew Riseman . This may translate into beneficial learning outcomes in the long-term. The observation began approximately 10 minutes after the lesson commenced, once students had settled into the lesson. P = 0.001 ) in all but the interaction with teacher category Development opportunities for teachers ( APST ) the. 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