Soil Organic Matter The organic matter in soil being the chief source of energy and food for most of the soil organisms, it has great influence on the microbial population. 6. One of the factors affecting soil structure is water movement. Soil microbiology is the study of microorganisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties.It is believed that between two and four billion years ago, the first ancient bacteria and microorganisms came about on Earth's oceans. Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent Material, Time, Climate, Relief, and Organisms. The work was supplemented by electron-microscopic observations. Kilbertus G. The changes in the soil microflora as a result of introducing various organic substances (gelatin, chitin, cellulose and beech sawdust) into the soil were studied. Soil microorganisms play a major role in the synthesis and degradation of crop residues into SOM. Factors affecting Compaction of soil. The soil microbial biomass constitutes about 2-4%of the soil organic matter of soil. Factors Affecting Soil Formation. Influence of external factors on the composition of the soil microflora. Most studies in soil microbiology have been concerned with either specific groups of the soil microflora or specific activities such as nitrifi- cation, organic matter transformations, or repression of plant pathogens. These airspaces remain even after the water thaws allowing more oxygen and soil organism activities. This process is an essential part of the construction of any structure, as it strengthens the soil. To begin defining the key determinants that drive microbial community structure in soil, we examined 29 soil samples from four geographically distinct locations taken from the surface, vadose zone, and saturated subsurface using a small-subunit rRNA-based cloning approach. Water Movement. The most important factors which affect / influence the microbial flora of the rhizosphere or rhizosphere effect are: soil type & its moisture, soil amendments, soil PH, proximity of root with soil… Factors affecting the colonisation of a root system by fluorescent Pseudomonads: The effects of water, temperature and soil microflora K. G. Davies 1 nAff2 & The decomposition rates of OM and crop residue depend primarily on chemical composition and on factors that affect the soil environment. Parent material: It refers to the mineral material or organic material from which the soil is formed. It is one of the most important factors Affecting Formation of Soil. Factors affecting microbial flora of the Rhizosphere / Rhizosphere Effect. Compaction of the soil is the process where the dry density of soil is increased by reducing air content or air voids present in the soil. When the water in the soil freezes, it expands and opens up soil particles creating air spaces. 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